What are the signs of sudden cardiac arrest and what to do in such a situation

Heart problems are one of the leading causes of death in the world (Infobae)
Heart problems are one of the leading causes of death in the world (Infobae)

The heart attack sudden is the abrupt loss of the heart functionthe breathing and the knowledge. The condition usually arises from a problem with the heart’s electrical systemthat interrupts the action of pumping of heart Y stops the Blood flow to the body.

The sudden cardiac arrest is different from a heart attack, which occurs when blood flow to part of the heart is blocked. However, a heart attack sometimes triggers an electrical disturbance that leads to sudden cardiac arrest.

this first can cause death if not treated immediately. It can survive with proper and prompt medical care. The cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), use a defibrillatoror even just give fast compressions in the chestmay increase the chances of surviving until emergency personnel arrive.

The heart failure symptoms sudden are immediate Y drasticamong them are the sudden collapsethe lack of pulse and of breathingas well as the loss of knowledge.

sometimes others signs precede cardiac arrestthese could include annoyance in the chest, lack of air, weakness, heart that beats fastthis hectic either throbs strongly (palpitations).

However, sudden cardiac arrest usually happens without warning.

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Although there are symptoms that can help in a case of cardiac arrest, on many occasions they happen without previous signs.  (File, Archive)
Although there are symptoms that can help in a case of cardiac arrest, on many occasions they happen without previous signs. (File, Archive)

The most common cause of heart failure is a arrhythmiadefined as an abnormal heart rhythm that occurs when the electrical system of the heart does not work correctly.

The electrical system of the heart controls the rhythm and rate of the heartbeat. If something is not right, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. These episodes are usually brief and harmless, but some types of arrhythmia can lead to sudden cardiac arrest.

People with no known heart disease can experience sudden cardiac arrest. However, generally a life-threatening arrhythmia develops in a person with pre-existing heart diseasepossibly undiagnosed.

The following are some of the conditions that can lead to sudden cardiac arrest:

Coronary artery disease: Most cases of sudden cardiac arrest occur in people who have coronary artery disease, in which the arteries become clogged with cholesterol and other deposits, reducing blood flow to the heart.

There are several causes of cardiac arrest.  (File, Archive)
There are several causes of cardiac arrest. (File, Archive)

Heart attack: if a heart attack occurs, often as a result of severe coronary artery disease, it can trigger ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac arrest. Also, cardiac arrest can leave areas of scar tissue on the heart. Electrical shorts around scar tissue can lead to heart rhythm abnormalities.

Dilated heart (cardiomyopathy): This occurs when the muscular walls of the heart are stretched or enlarged or thickened. So the heart muscle is abnormal, a condition that often causes arrhythmias.

Heart valve disease: loss or narrowing of the heart valves can lead to stretching or thickening of the heart muscle. When the cavities become enlarged or weakened due to the stress caused by a tight or leaking valve, there is an increased risk of developing an arrhythmia.

Heart defects present at birth (congenital heart disease): when sudden cardiac arrest occurs in children or adolescents, it may be due to congenital heart disease. Adults who have had corrective surgery for a congenital heart defect are still at increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest.

Electrical problems in the heart: In some people, the problem is in the electrical system of the heart itself, rather than a problem with the heart muscle or valves. They are called primary heart rhythm abnormalities and include conditions such as Brugada syndrome and long QT syndrome.

Various risk factors increase the possibility of suffering a cardiac arrest.  (Getty Images)
Various risk factors increase the possibility of suffering a cardiac arrest. (Getty Images)

Some of the factors that increase the risk of cardiac arrest are: a family history of illness of the coronary arteries, to smoke, blood pressure highlevel tall of cholesterol on the blood, obesity, diabetes and a style of idle life.

Other factors that can increase the risk of cardiac arrest are: a previous episode of cardiac arrest either family background whether from cardiac arrest or other forms of heart disease, get olderbe of sex male, consume drugs illegal, nutritional imbalance, obstructive sleep apnea of sleep Y chronic kidney disease.

If any of these signs occur, it is best to call 911 or emergency medical attention: pain either annoyance in the chest, heart palpitations, rapid heartbeat either irregular, wheezing without apparent cause, lack of air, fainting or states close to fainting, as well as daze either dizziness.

When the heart stops, the lack of oxygenated blood can cause brain damage permanent or the death in minutes. The time is of the essence when helping an unconscious person who is not breathing, in such cases it is best to to call a emergencies, realize a cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use a portable defibrillator.

To make a cardiopulmonary resuscitation, press firmly and rapidly against the person’s chest, at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions per minute. If you are trained in CPR, examine the person’s airway and provide mouth breathing a mouth every 30 compressions. If you’re not trained, just continue with chest compressions.

The portable defibrillators They are available in many places, such as airports, casinos, and shopping malls. You can also buy one for your home.

The defibrillator will check the person’s heart rhythm and recommend a shock if necessary. Then, check the heart rhythm with the defibrillator and, if necessary, deliver another shock. Repeat this cycle until the person regains consciousness or emergency personnel take control of the situation.

It is important to know what to do in a case of cardiac arrest.  (File, Archive)
It is important to know what to do in a case of cardiac arrest. (File, Archive)

Once the patient arrives at the emergency room, the medical staff will work to stabilize the condition and treat a possible heart attack, heart failure, or electrolyte imbalance. Medicines may be given to stabilize your heart rhythm.

After recovery, the doctor will discuss with the patient and family what additional tests might help determine the cause of the cardiac arrest, as well as preventative treatment options to reduce the risk of another cardiac arrest.

Treatments may include the following:

Doctors use different antiarrhythmic drugs for emergency or long-term treatment of arrhythmias. A class of drugs called “beta blockers” is often used in people at risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Other medications that may be used to treat the condition that caused the arrhythmia include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors Y calcium channel blockers.

Once the disease has stabilized, the doctor will likely recommend a defibrillator implantable cardioversion, a battery-powered unit that is worn on the body or near the left clavicle. One or more wires with electrodes lead from the defibrillator to the heart through the veins.

The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator constantly monitors the heart’s rhythm. If it detects a rhythm that is too slow, it regulates the rate of the heart in the way that a pacemaker would. If it senses a dangerous change in heart rhythm, it delivers low- or high-energy shocks to restore the heart’s normal rhythm.

The coronary angioplasty It opens clogged coronary arteries and allows blood to flow more freely to the heart, which can reduce the risk of a serious arrhythmia. A long, thin tube is inserted through an artery, usually in the leg, to reach a blocked artery in the heart. The tip of this catheter is equipped with a special balloon that is inflated briefly to open a blocked artery.

To prevent other cases of cardiac arrest, the patient must take a treatment.  (Getty Images)
To prevent other cases of cardiac arrest, the patient must take a treatment. (Getty Images)

At the same time, a metal mesh stent may be inserted into the artery to keep it open long-term, restoring blood flow to the heart. Coronary angioplasty can be done at the same time as a coronary catheterization, a procedure doctors use to look for narrowed arteries in the heart.

Also called “coronary artery bypass grafting,” the coronary artery bypass surgery involves stitching veins or arteries in place above a blocked or narrowed coronary artery to restore blood flow to the heart. This can improve the blood supply to the heart and reduce the rate of racing heartbeats.

The radiofrequency catheter ablation is a procedure that can be used to block an individual abnormal electrical pathway. One or more catheters are inserted through the blood vessels into the heart. They are positioned along the electrical conduits identified by the doctor as causing the arrhythmia.

The electrodes at the tip of the catheter are heated with radiofrequency energy. This destroys a small piece of heart tissue and creates an electrical barrier in the pathway where the arrhythmia is generated to stop it.

If you have a congenital heart deformity, a faulty valve, or diseased heart muscle tissue due to cardiomyopathy, the surgery to correct the abnormality it can improve heart rate and blood flow, reducing the risk of fatal arrhythmias.

With information from Mayo Clinic

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